By G. William
Irrespective of the sector, pros have to reply speedy to quantitative difficulties as they come up and to boost a brief realizing of what the information suggest. no matter if you're an aide to a urban council member attempting to decipher the genuine which means of a citizen opinion ballot, a personal advisor to the overall healthiness division estimating the variety of pregnant young ones in a local, or the administrative director of a small employer striving to offer your price range proof accurately and obviously, the innovations awarded listed below are worthy to you and your paintings.
* offers fairly basic thoughts that may be utilized fast whilst a whole, thorough resolution isn't really possible
* presents directions for using every one method and examples with challenge options
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Extra resources for Quick Answers to Quantitative Problems. A Pocket Primer
7 0 or lower Appropriate Phrase A very strong positive association A substantial positive association A moderate positive association A low positive association A negligible positive association No association A negligible negative association A low negative association A moderate negative association A substantial negative association A very strong negative association Source: James A Davis, Elementary Jersey, 1971, p. 49. , Englewood Cliffs, New Correlation Analysis There are, of course, other conventions that could be used to name the levels of correlation, and you should use the convention that exists in your field.
A correlation coefficient can tell us the strength and direction of this relationship. Gamma is one of several measures of correlation that can be used for this purpose. We propose its use because it can be computed quickly with paper and pencil and its meaning is easily understood and conveyed. Gamma is most easily computed from tabular data. Assume we have two variables, each with two values. The data should be laid out as in Table 1, where the letters a, b, c, and d simply label the cells. If we were doing this analysis for the night baseball example that is discussed in Chapter 2, Tabular Analysis, variable one might be Age and variable two would be Approval or Disapproval of Night Baseball.
We would have to use statistical procedures to determine if this apparent relationship is statistically significant. A test of statistical significance (see Chapter 6, Statistical Significance, for further discussion) will tell us if we can be confident of the relationship or if the apparent relationship could easily be the result of sampling error. With only 10 parks in our sample data, we can not have a lot of confidence in our results. In our sample, the inclusion of one noisy park with high use could easily change the results of a statistical test for relationships.
Quick Answers to Quantitative Problems. A Pocket Primer by G. William