By Seth G. Jones
In Afghanistan, neighborhood groups have performed a severe position in defense, in particular in rural components. Afghan nationwide safety forces are very important to the top-down approach, however the Afghan executive and NATO forces additionally have to leverage neighborhood groups to realize a complementary bottom-up method. This research discusses the viability of building neighborhood safeguard forces in Afghanistan and addresses matters in regards to the knowledge of such guidelines.
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Additional info for Afghanistan's Local War: Building Local Defense Forces
United States Army, September 2009, p. 24. 4 On tribal engagement, see, for example, Jim Gant, One Tribe at a Time, Los Angeles: Nine Sisters Imports, 2009. Local Dynamics and Community Policing 17 non-Pashtuns, such as Gujar herdsmen who are attached to the khan’s lands or household, as well as families of various castes who are similarly attached. These may be Pashtuns or Kohistanis—or even Hindus or other non-Muslims. All are considered part of the khan khel, occupying widely divergent status, rights, and duties.
Jirgas and shuras are instrumental in enforcing Pashtunwali through their decisionmaking at the local level. Historically, a jirga is a temporary council established to address specific issues, while a shura is a morepermanent consultative council. 17 Pashtunwali is a form of customary law, which can be defined as the way in which local communities resolve disputes in the absence of state authority—or sometimes in opposition to it. According to one tradition, conflict generally arises because of zar (gold), zan (women), or zamin (land).
Security was established using a combination of top-down efforts by the central government (especially in urban areas) and bottom-up efforts by local tribes and other communities (especially in rural areas). As anthropologist Thomas Barfield concluded, Political stability in rural Afghanistan under the Musahibans rested on the tacit recognition of two distinct power structures: the provincial and subprovincial administrations, which were arms of the central government, and tribal or village structures indigenous to each region.
Afghanistan's Local War: Building Local Defense Forces by Seth G. Jones