Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi by Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo PDF

By Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo Tsubouchi

ISBN-10: 1558993851

ISBN-13: 9781558993853

The MRS Symposium continuing sequence is an the world over regarded reference appropriate for researchers and practitioners.

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Additional info for Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1996: Materials Research Society Conference Proceedings

Sample text

E. equilibrium is moved to dibenzenechromium formation. 26) are thermodynamically possible. 24) is moved to initial substances. The inactive chromium powder, which is formed as the 36 Cryosynthesis of Metal Complexes Ch. 1 result of the aggregation of the atomic metal does not react with benzene and remains in the reaction chamber at the end of the process. 26) require trimolecular collisions, the possibility of which is almost zero. For gas-phase reactions, the possibilities (z3) of trimolecular and bimolecular (z2) collisions are z3/z2- 10-2p, where p is the pressure (atm) and T - 300 K.

1 R M XNXI The gas-phase synthesis, properties and structures of complexes of type XXXI have been reviewed [5,7,12,16] and constitute the subject matter of a monograph [22]. Among early papers, it is necessary to single out the work of Graves [42], who described 38 bis(arene) sandwich complexes of type XXNI (R -- F, C1, CF3, Alk, OAlk, NAlk2, COOAlk), obtained by cocondensation of metals and ligands at 77 K and 5 x 10 Torr. The complexes were characterized by 13C N M R spectra and their comparative thermal stability was determined.

A metal atom, arriving at the surface of the condensed (in)organic substance, evidently already loses its energy in its first collision with condensedphase molecules (this could be concluded from an evaluation of the kinetic energy of the atom in flight). Local overheating of the condensed phase contributes to diffusion of metal atoms and molecules of the organic phase; as a result, a favorable spatial orientation of the reaction participants in the matrix (for the following interaction) is attained.

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Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1996: Materials Research Society Conference Proceedings by Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo Tsubouchi


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